The Institute of Physiology was first established in Istanbul in 1986 as a part of the Veterinary School. In 1933, the institute moved to Ankara and became a part of the Agriculture School which had been directed by Dr. Robert Seuffert. Until 1952, there were two courses which had been given by the department under the names of Physical Physiology and Chemical Physiology. After then, Physiology and Biochemistry Sub departments were established under the name of Biochemistry and Physiology Department. In 1990, these two sub departments became individual departments under their own names. The Department of Physiology at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine is located in the Diskapi campus of Ankara University.

As of October 2015, the department has 4 professors, 2 associate professor, 3 research associates, 6 PhD students and 4 MSc students.

The main research subjects of the department are; Rumen physiology, antioxidative metabolism, obesity, polymorphism, ECG and animal behavior.